Discuss about a Comparison of Three Types of Thermometers?
There are various types of thermometers available in the market. It should be taken a note that the correct thermometer should be used for the defined job in the desired field. A medically used thermometer is unsuitable in the industrial purposes. One of the mostly used thermometer is the Analogue Thermometer which is often very cheap and easily available in the medical stores (Portable Field Thermometer, 2011). They are Mercury filled and used for checking the temperature of patients suffering from fever. It has a simple display with both Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, can be immersed in liquids and requires low maintenance. ATH-410 is an example of such thermometers. The Tympanic Thermometer which is generally placed in the one third region of the external ear and the receiver cap is replaced after each usage. Like the Analogue Thermometer it is portable, easy to handle and use. In the Infrared Thermometer, temperature analysis is performed in non-contact materials. It is highly specialised for high or low surface temperatures (Compact infrared thermometer, 2014). They are fast, accurate, have dual sensors, probes can be interchangeable and high resolution.
The aim of this study is to compare the body temperature and its related aspects of young individuals of 453 students regarding three different types of measurement tools. A set of temperature is collected to analyse the measurements. It was determined that, although the measurement values of the tympanic membrane and chemical dot thermometers conformed with each other, the conformity of the non-contact infrared thermometer was weak. It also demonstrates the types of measurements like invasive and noninvasive methods.
To analyse the different body temperatures using three different types of thermometer. The measurements are done under normal temperature or room temperature (25 degree Celsius). In both of the cases the external conditions remains same.
Is Sund Levender Hypothesis relevant for detection of the body temperature at normal physiological conditions?
The study was research based which followed some predefined set of procedures and regulations. It also takes sample to analyse the matter in brief. It also covers some tools or instruments to proceed with the research (Basak, 2012).The research population composing of the students in the two departments of University of Ankara was taken and the sample size was noted ((Haman, et al., 2010). It was stated to be of 410 people using the G* Power software. A consideration was taken of about 90-95% of the correlations so provided had coefficient designed as alpha and 5% with beta. Total 452 students fitting to the inclusion criteria was allowed to participate. Students with infection in the mouth mucosa lesion or any other type of infections was excluded from the research work (Pulizzi, 2014).
An ethical approval was obtained from the institutional head prior to the beginning of the study. Instruments generally used were the 3M Tempa DOT chemical dot thermometer, Thermosense non-contact infrared thermometer and a Tympanic Thermometer. Prior to the experiment it was taken a note that the students do not encounter with any hot or cold food materials (Ilce, 2015). Calibration of the thermometers were performed and held at RT for 10 minutes. Body temperature measurement was carried out in four folds, two from RT auditory canal, and two from LT with the tympanic thermometer. 3 measurement per subject with non-contact infrared thermometer was done and 1 with Chemical Dot Thermometer (CDOT) (Rey, 2010). Time taken was 3-5 minutes per participant. Total 3616 measurement was performed. The data was evaluated by Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Mean, Standard Deviation, Frequencies and Percentages was performed. Finally a graphical representation was performed by Bland-Atman graph sheet (Infrared Thermometer. (2011).
Among the participants 44.9% male candidates and 55.1% female candidates were taken. The average age was 19.66 and 83.9% were normal weighed. The average temperature obtained was 36.71 for CDOT, 36.78 for tympanic thermometer and 36.22 for infrared thermometer. Validities was compared and interclass correlation was found out to be 0.867 for clinical dot thermometer and tympanic thermometer whereas it is 0.805 for non-contact infrared thermometer. It re measurability it was denoted that interclass correlation was 0.904 with tympanic and 0.909 with infrared thermometer. So it can be statistically denoted that there is a strong co relation among the values. At high temperatures it is observed that the working capacity of the infrared thermometer has reduced as compared to the other two types.
The OMT was measured to be around 36.71⁰C whereas that of tympanic mean temperature was 36.78⁰C and forehead mean temperature was 36.22⁰C (Noone, S2012). This can be related to the Sund-Levender temperature value of 33.2⁰C-38.2⁰C for oral temperature and 35.4⁰C-37.8⁰C for tympanic thermometer. Hence we can conclude that the experimental values coincides with the literature values of body temperature (Zhu, 2015).
Students who have faced any physical problem in the last seven dates before the test was excluded from the research. Normal youth will be taken as an example. Even The students who were diagnosed with any type of infection within the last 7 days were also excluded from the analysis.
Age will be same for all the individuals. Only one measurement also performed with the chemical dot thermometer.
It is suggested that similar studies should be conducted with different age groups and different thermometers and with adults who have high body temperatures.